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42 questions from students during the course

Updated: May 8

This is a summary of 42 of the questions from students that were asked during the course.

Some of them are simple questions from students who are learning Japanese food.

We hope that your questions will be answered here.


1. How many types of rice are available in Japanese cuisine?

There are so many varieties.

The total number of rice varieties inspected in 2019 is 824 for paddy rice, 132 for glutinous rice, and 223 for brewer's brown rice.

Koshihikari" was created in Fukui Prefecture in 1956, and is favored by many people for its sweetness, stickiness, and good taste even when cold, and is produced throughout Japan. From 1979 to the present, it has been the No. 1 crop in Japan in terms of acreage. Since then, various varieties have been introduced, including "Hitomebore," "Akita Komachi," and "Haenuki.

2. How many types of vegetables are used in Japanese cuisine?

Japanese vegetables have been improved, and for this reason, many vegetables are used.

Classification of vegetables: Currently, there are about 150 to 200 varieties of vegetables grown in Japan. They can be broadly classified according to the parts used: fruit vegetables, leafy greens (leafy stem vegetables), and root vegetables.

Major vegetables used in Japanese cooking include potatoes, carrots, onions, pumpkins, lotus roots, spinach, and radishes.

Root vegetables: Radish, carrots, burdocks, horse bellies, etc.

Leaf and stem vegetables: Chinese cabbage, cabbage, leeks, onions, etc.

Fruit vegetables: cucumbers, pumpkins, tomatoes, eggplants, etc.

Most of the native vegetables are said to be udo, okahijiki, sansho, yam, junsai, parsley, tsuzu, vine, hama-hofu, water chestnut, butterbur, pineapple, mitsuba, myoga, shiroan, lily, wasabi, burdock thistle, goji, and 20 other varieties.

3. When do you think a food is not authentic Japanese food?

The taste is different. The taste is different, perhaps due to the use of seasonings that are not Japanese.

Taste and appearance are different. The taste is different from the appearance. When a non-Japanese cook prepares the dish, it looks strange unless it is prepared according to the theory of Japanese food preparation.

4. What is the ratio of chicken, meat, and seafood used?

In Japan, we eat a lot of meat and poultry. However, in Traditional Japanese cuisine, fish is the main ingredient and meat/poultry is not used.

In modern Japanese cuisine, meat and poultry are used.

The approximate percentages are 50% for fish, 20% for meat, and 12% for poultry.

According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' "Household Survey," in 2020, household consumption of meat, per capita nationwide,

Beef purchased 2,438 grams (up 10.3% from the previous year),

Pork: 7,781 grams (+9.0% y/y)

6359 grams of chicken meat (up 11.5%).

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the amount of fish and shellfish consumed by Japanese people in a year is,

23.400 grams in FY2020. This is a decrease of more than 40% over the past 20 years.

As for meat, Japanese eat mostly pork, imported beef, and Wagyu beef.

They do not eat many wild birds such as duck, quail, etc.

Wild boar, sheep, goats, and horses are also rarely eaten.

5. Is Tebasaki part of the Japanese menu?

Are chicken wings part of the Japanese menu?

Tebasaki, short for "fried chicken wing", is a dish made by deep frying chicken wings. It is the soul food of Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, and is popular among tourists.

Its appeal is that tebasaki is a dish made by deep frying the wing tips of chicken wings (tebasaki). It is seasoned with sweet and spicy sauce, dark spices, and sesame seeds. There are two ways to cook chicken wings. One is "deep-fried chicken wings," which are fried in mainstream oil to a crisp. The other is "tebasaki nimono," which is cooked slowly so that the flavor soaks into the bones. There are distinctly different tastes! Tebasaki are popular as take-out and souvenirs because of their convenience. They are so popular in other prefectures and even overseas that there are take-out stores in underground shopping malls and souvenir shops have set up tebasaki areas.

6. Do you use lamb?

In some parts of Japan, lamb is the main meat and is consumed daily. Hokkaido.

It is popularly known as Genghis Khan hot pot.

Lamb restaurants are rare, and there are a few throughout Japan that specialize in lamb. 7.

7. What is the most common part used for katsuletsu?

There are two types of pork parts suitable for tonkatsu: loin and fillet.

8. What kind of seafood is mainly used?

The most consumed fish in Japanese households is salmon.

The most consumed fish in Japanese households is salmon, followed by tuna, yellowtail, and yellowtail.

Salmon, tuna, yellowtail, shrimp, and squid

The ranking of fresh fish and shellfish consumption is as follows

1983: squid, shrimp, tuna, saury, horse mackerel

2013: Salmon, tuna, yellowtail, shrimp, squid

9. What is your traditional taste? (Salty, neutral, sweet, sour)

Bonito dashi taste

Kelp dashi flavor

Soy sauce flavor

(Salty, neutral, sweet, sour)

- Mirin Amatare (sweet mirin) and others

10. Are garlic and onion the main ingredients?

I am not sure exactly what you mean by "garlic and onion are the main ingredients".

Traditional Japanese cuisine does not use garlic.

11. Can I use frozen ingredients? Or do they always have to be fresh?

Japanese cuisine is based on using seasonal ingredients. Therefore, we do not use a lot of frozen foods.

12. Are there any processed foods in Japanese cuisine?

There are many.

Traditional processed foods:

Traditional processed foods: Miso, soy sauce, and other seasonings, tofu, koya-dofu, buckwheat,

Dried fish. Dried squid. Dried kelp. Processed fish products such as dried bonito.

Various processed foods such as margarine, mayonnaise, instant foods, frozen products, and functional foods have become widespread as consumer needs and processing technologies have advanced.

Instant foods, in particular, have advanced enormously.

Instant ramen, instant miso soup, instant seasonings that you just pour on top.

If you are interested, we present you with instant foods that are considered typical and delicious.

If it is not a high-class restaurant like a kaiseki restaurant, there are many places that skillfully use a lot of instant foods and combine them with fresh foods to create a chef's taste.

Also, in Japan, there are professional wholesalers for professional use, and they make and sell many semi-processed products. For large volume orders from large restaurants, they make processed and semi-processed foods according to the client's recipe and deliver them to the restaurant daily, according to the client's wishes.

Almost all restaurants use these commercial food wholesalers.

Typical ingredients that are processed from fresh produce in some way

Fish paste products (kamaboko, chikuwa, etc.)

Processed meat products (sausage, ham, etc.)

Processed milk products (yogurt, cheese, etc.)

Processed fruit products (jam, juice, etc.)

13. Do you use cold cuts?

Not very much. To begin with, traditional Japanese food rarely uses processed raw or processed meats.

14. Are there any regular or special cheese/dairy products?

Traditional Japanese cuisine does not use cheese.

Modern Japanese cuisine uses processed cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and various imported cheeses.

In Japan, dairy products are used. There are many types of milk, yogurt, yogurt drinks, and yogurt drinks as health drinks.

15. Do you use animal or vegetable milk or cheese?

Animal and vegetable milk products and cheeses are common, and are consumed by Japanese people on a daily basis. There is also a vegetarian food called "soy cheese," which is a processed soybean food with a taste and texture similar to cheese.

16. What is the difference between Japanese noodles and other Asian noodles?

The method of noodle making differs from that of Chinese noodles.

Also, the soup of ramen noodles has evolved uniquely in Japan.

Udon noodles and Japanese buckwheat noodles are made by kneading the ingredients, stretching them with a rolling pin, and then cutting them into thin strips with a special knife.

They are not stretched by hand.

17. Is Japanese food standardized throughout Japan, or does each region have its own style and flavor?

Japanese food is different in each region of Japan.

However, due to the development of distribution and promotion, Japanese food can be found in all regions of Japan.

18. Do you marinate with herbs or tea leaves?

Marinating is a method of cooking or preserving food by soaking it in vinegar, lemon juice, or other marinade to soften or preserve it. In Japanese cuisine, it is similar to the cooking method called "namasu" and Japanese pickles.

Basically, vinegar, salt, and bran are used.

Namasu" is the main spice in Japanese cuisine,

19. What is the main spice in japanese cuisine?



Chili pepper

Other Prickly Ash, shiso, yuzu, poppy seeds, sesame, kabosu, sudachi

20. Are fresh potatoes part of the main ingredi

Does the question refer to whether or not potatoes are a staple food?

Potatoes are frequently used in Japanese cooking, but are not a staple ingredient.

The staple of Japanese food is rice.

21. Do you use canned food?

Yes, we do.

22. What is the most common type of bread?

It is called "Shokupan" (bread), which is brown around the edges and white inside. It is less salty.

23. If the material is not available, do you use an alternative? Can you give an example?

There is 100% rice flour bread. Made with only rice flour, water, yeast, sugar, salt, and fat.

24. How do I tenderize beef of the lowest quality?

By dipping the meat in them, the meat itself becomes more acidic and tender.

Beer or cola in the marinade of pork stew or chashu pork will give it a deep flavor.


Marinating is marinating meat, fish, or vegetables in an acidic liquid such as lemon juice, vinegar, or wine. In other words, by bringing the ph value of the meat to an acidic level, the moisture in the meat is retained and the meat becomes tender.

Roast beef, braised beef cheeks and shanks can be tenderized by soaking them in red wine.

Since baking soda is alkaline, it tenderizes meat by making its ph value closer to that of alkaline. Mix 1 teaspoon of baking soda in 250 cc of water, place the meat in the mixture, and marinate for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Be sure to use edible baking soda. Baking soda has a bitter taste, so use only the right amount and wipe off or rinse off the liquid before cooking.

This method can be used to prepare thick meat dishes such as steak, stewed cubes and pork cutlets.

Fruits such as pineapple, kiwi and pears also contain large amounts of protease.

Chop them finely or grate them and marinate them in the meat. When grilling, wipe off the water before grilling.

Shio koji, a fermented food, also contains a lot of protease. 20 to 30 minutes of soaking is enough to get the full effect.

You can find tube-type shio koji in supermarkets in Japan, so it is easy to try it in Japan.

Soak it in yogurt and let it rest in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 hours.

The lactic acid bacteria and enzymes in the yogurt will tenderize the meat.

Miso. Miso, a fermented food, also contains protease, an enzyme that breaks down proteins, making the meat tender. Miso marinating also maintains the moisture content of the meat due to the enzyme, which keeps the meat moist and not dry.

25. Is there a specific cut size for the meat? Is there a specific cut size for the meat, or is it a regular bite size?

There is no cut size requirement for meat.

Japanese food is eaten with chopsticks. Therefore, we serve it in a size that fits in your mouth.

Usually, the meat is cut into bite-size pieces, or into long, thin pieces that can be chewed with the mouth, or the meat is cooked so tender that it can be cut with chopsticks.

Tonkatsu is usually about 20 cm x 10 cm in size, but when served on a plate, it is cut into long, thin strips about 3 cm long. Pork kakuni is cooked very tender for hours and can be easily cut with chopsticks.

26. Is there such a thing as pie in Japanese cuisine?

Traditional Japanese cuisine does not include pies.

Modern Japanese cuisine uses a mixture of different cooking methods and ingredients from many different countries, in which case there are pie dishes.

27. Is pickles the main seasoning? What type?

Japanese pickles are mainly salt, vinegar, bran, etc.

28. What are the main sauces used in Japan: oysters, teriyaki, fish, or soy sauce?

Among these, soy sauce.

The basic seasonings in Japan are miso, soy sauce, vinegar, sugar, sake, mirin and salt.

29.  Do you have beef sashimi? Or is it mainly seafood?

Yes, we do have beef sashimi. It is called "beef sashimi. However, sashimi is mainly seafood.

30. What kind of authentic vinegar do you use?

There are many different types of vinegar in Japan.

The typical vinegar in Japan, where people eat mostly rice, is "rice vinegar. Rice vinegar is used for sushi and other dishes, and is the vinegar with which we are most familiar.

31. What other vinegars can be used for Japanese food?

Black vinegar is another vinegar unique to Japan.

It is a type of rice vinegar made from brown rice. It is also called tsubo-zu. It is popular for its richness and flavor, and its black color is due to the long period of aging and fermentation that gives it its unique color. 32. Black vinegar is made from brown rice or barley, and ceramic jars are used for maturation, which takes as long as one to three years. Compared to ordinary vinegar, black vinegar has a unique flavor and taste and is highly nutritious. Black vinegar is rich in natural amino acids, citric acid, succinic acid, organic acids, vitamins and minerals. It is characterized by a slightly thicker consistency than grain vinegar.

32. What is tempura batter made of? Can regular flour be used? If no, why not?

The main ingredient of tempura flour is mainly light flour. When mixed with water, it forms gluten, which forms the skeleton of the batter. Too much gluten prevents tempura from being crispy, so light flour with less protein is mainly used.

33. Do you have baked sweet snacks?

Yes, there are.

Castella, a Nagasaki specialty, is a baked pastry that was introduced from the southern barbarians during the Muromachi period (1333-1573). Castella is classified as a Japanese confectionery, as confectioneries introduced after the Meiji period (1868-1912) were classified as "Western confectioneries" and those that existed before that period were classified as "Wagashi" (Japanese confectioneries). It is characterized by the taste of eggs and the gentle sweetness of the pomelo and is easy to eat for all ages.


Like castella, this confectionery was introduced from Nanban in the Muromachi period (1333-1573). Because the ingredients are slightly different from those of foreign flours, Japanese bolo has a stronger hollowness and melts quickly in the mouth. They are popular as a snack that even infants can eat.


A baked sweet made by mixing white bean paste with sugar and eggs. The richness and mildness of the egg gives it a texture that crumbles gently. Depending on the product, it is branded with cherry blossoms or plum blossoms, and has long been popular as a Japanese confectionery with good luck. Dorayaki, Castella,


An inflated food and Japanese confectionery consisting of two pieces of sponge cake-like dough, usually in the shape of slightly inflated disks, with azuki red bean paste sandwiched in between. It is baked with honey to make a moist sponge cake dough.

Senbei (rice cracker)

Made from Uruchi rice, senbei can be divided into two types: baked senbei and fried senbei.

34. Are gyoza related to the Japanese menu?

Japanese gyoza originally came from China but evolved in its own way in Japan. In Japan, Baked gyoza is the most common type of gyoza. In China, where gyoza is originally from, it is mainly made with soup-gyoza or steamed dumplings. In addition, Japanese dumplings are often made with ground pork, while Chinese dumplings are mainly made with beef, donkey meat, or mutton.

In the lesson on June 15, we will teach Japanese dumplings.

35. Do you use fruits in savory dishes?

In the first place, we don't have a sense of week to eat savory dishes in Japan.

If It had to guess, I would say afternoon tea with a lot of savory dishes. Daikon radish pie, or a small set of rice balls, etc.... Fruit may be included, but that is at the discretion of the provider.

36. Do you consider appetizers or other categories on your menu?

Yes, we do.

37. How many kinds of seaweed are available?

There are many varieties. We do not know the exact number.

In Japan, more than 100 kinds of seaweed are edible.

Seaweed is very important in Japanese cuisine, and kombu dashi is an important soup stock. It is rich in minerals and sea ingredients. It is said that eating seaweed-based dishes every day will improve your health.

It is colorful.

Nori used for rice balls and toppings are "red algae.

Green algae are used in soups, salads, kimchi, tempura, and other dishes, and their beautiful green color is appetizing.

Wakame seaweed, kelp, mekabu, and hijiki, which are representative Japanese seaweeds used in miso soup and vinegared dishes, are brown algae.

38. What is the substitute for Wasabi?

It is horseradish. It has a different aroma, but is inexpensive. Powdered wasabi is also available. Powdered wasabi is dissolved in water and kneaded well before use.

39. How many kinds of soy sauce are there?

There are many.

According to JAS (Japanese Agricultural Standards), soy sauce is classified into five types.

Dark soy sauce

This is what is generally referred to as soy sauce. It is not only salty, but also sweet and mild.The sweet soy sauce often seen in Kyushu is also classified as koikuchi soy sauce.

Light Soy Sauce

If you want to make delicious home cooking, you should have a light (light) soy sauce.

The color is lighter, but the salt content is higher than that of dark soy sauce, so be careful.

Tamari Soy Sauce

Tamari soy sauce is darker in color than dark soy sauce. It has a strong flavor and aroma, and is also characterized by its strong thickening.

Suitable for simmered fish and other dishes that require a strong flavor.

Refining Soy Sauce

Also known as "sweet soy sauce. As the name suggests, it is sweet.

It has a strong color and aroma, and is delicious on sushi and sashimi.

White Soy Sauce

The lightest colored soy sauce.

It has a high salt content, but the aroma and sweetness are also strong enough.

40. What is the difference between regular mayonnaise and Japanese mayonnaise?

Foreign ones generally use whole eggs. On the other hand, Japanese mayonnaise generally uses only egg yolks. Of course, there are mayonnaise products in Japan that are labeled as using whole eggs, but most Japanese mayonnaise has a more acidic taste than most mayonnaise products from overseas. By using only yolk eggs, the taste is creamy and mellow.

41. What is the difference between regular mustard and Japanese mustard?

In the past, "oriental mustard" was mainly grown in Japan. After different types of mustard, such as "yellow mustard," were introduced from Europe and the United States, the Western mustard was called "Western mustard" and the ancient Japanese mustard was called "Japanese mustard" to distinguish between the two.

Japanese mustard is used in oden and simmered dishes, and is characterized by its strong aroma and flavor. Western mustard is used as "mustard" in hot dogs and hamburgers, and is characterized by its mild flavor.

42. How many types of raayu are there and what are they made of?

There are many. Ra-ayu is used as a sauce for dumplings, noodles, and as a finishing touch for Chinese dishes, etc. It is not a Japanese seasoning.

It is a combination of red chili peppers, scallions, garlic, and other spices and flavorful vegetables, heated in vegetable oil such as sesame oil.

There are many varieties of this dish, depending on the combination of each ingredient. 43. cooking style: sautéed

Cooking styles: sauteed, grilled, stewed, poached, braised, braised, roasted?

Japanese cuisine uses all cooking methods: sautéing, grilling, stewing, poaching, broiling, simmering, and roasting. We also use a lot of "steaming" techniques.

I will be happy to answer any questions you may have.

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